Satkosia Tiger reserve has a tremendous genetic and ecological importance. Apart from the flagship species, the Tiger, the reserve has a significant population of elephants. The Tiger reserve is the natural habitat of two endangered species of fresh water crocodilians viz. Gharial and Mugger. The reserve has sizeable population of Tiger, Leopard, Gaur, Sambar, Chowsingha and Barking deer. Large population of Giant squirrel can be sighted on the forest canopy. Rare and endangered birds and butterflies are seen here. The 22 Km stretch of Satkosia gorge harbours a large population of varied fishes and aquatic fauna.
Satkosia is famous for its unique gorge eco-system and it serves also as a major watershed for the entire region. The magnificent Hinjala, Dhauranja, Kochila, Arjuna and Phasi forests on the banks of river Mahanadi are typical elements of riverine forests. Bamboo brakes consisting of two species of bamboo, namely Bambusa arundinaceae and Dendrocalamus strictus are common to this Tiger reserve.
Satkosia also represents the endemic life-forms of both the biotic provinces in its transitional zone. Geologically speaking, the Eastern Ghats form the land bridge for faunal migration between Holarctic, Indo-Chinese and Indo Malayan regions on one hand and the Western Ghats on the other. It forms an important catchment of lower Mahanadi basin. The positive role these catchment forests play in prevention of siltation and maintenance of a specific desirable depth of water that can hardly be over emphasized, particularly for the endangered Gharal, for breeding of amphibians and for spawning sites of commercially important carps and prawns.
The avifauna of Satkosia is rich and varied with resident birds viz. Emerald dove, Malabar pied hornbill, Shaheen Falcon, Yellow legged buttom quail, Malabar trogon, Hill myna, Great stone Plover and Stork billed kingfisher. The migratory birds include Brahminy ducks, Bar-headed geese, Pintails etc.
||Most endangered Gharials (Gavialis gangeticus), endangered Tiger, sizeable Central Elephant and Chousingha population.
||Southern most natural home of Gharials in fast flowing river Mahanadi contributing to a distinct gene pool besides supporting four species of endangered Turtles- Chitra indica, Leissemys punctata punctata, Kachuga kachuga, Trionix gangeticus the conservation of which is of National priority.
||Biogeographically, meeting point of two biotic provinces contributing to assemblage of flora & faunal extravaganza providing rich biodiversity.
||Second largest population of Elephant, Gaur & Tiger. The tiger reserve is part of the catchment of mighty Mahanadi river system providing continuous recharge & feeds ground water.
||Mahanadi River is spawning site for commercially important carps and prawns. A scenic spot for tourists and local people and a fishing paradise. Satkosia tiger reserve has tremendous forest resource potential for sustenance of local populace.